Dating tattooed women
Anthropologist Irene Good, a specialist in early Eurasian textiles, noted the woven diagonal twill pattern indicated the use of a rather sophisticated loom and said that the textile is "the easternmost known example of this kind of weaving technique." Mair claims that "the earliest mummies in the Tarim Basin were exclusively Caucasoid, or Europoid" with east Asian migrants arriving in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin around 3,000 years ago while the Uyghur peoples arrived around the year 842.
The new finds are also forcing a reexamination of old Chinese books that describe historical or legendary figures of great height, with deep-set blue or green eyes, long noses, full beards, and red or blond hair.
A 2008 study by Jilin University showed that the Yuansha population has relatively close relationships with the modern populations of South Central Asia and Indus Valley, as well as with the ancient population of Chawuhu.
In 2007 the Chinese government allowed a National Geographic Society team headed by Spencer Wells to examine the mummies' DNA.
Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that maternal lineages carried by the people at Xiaohe included mt DNA haplogroups H, K, U5, U7, U2e, T and R*, which are now most common in West Eurasia.
Also found were haplogroups common in modern populations from East Asia: B5, D and G2a.
Haplogroups now common in Central Asian or Siberian populations included: C4 and C5.
Haplogroups later regarded as typically South Asian included M5 and M*.
Chärchän man wore a red twill tunic and tartan leggings.
Between 2009-2015, the remains of 92 individuals found at the Xiaohe Tomb complex were analyzed for Y-DNA and mt DNA markers.
Genetic analyses of the mummies showed that the maternal lineages of the Xiaohe people originated from both East Asia and West Eurasia, whereas the paternal lineages all originated from West Eurasia.
Many of the mummies have been found in very good condition, owing to the dryness of the desert and the desiccation it produced in the corpses.
The mummies share many typical Caucasian body features (elongated bodies, angular faces, recessed eyes), and many of them have their hair physically intact, ranging in color from blond to red to deep brown, and generally long, curly and braided.